There was a recent discussion in which a teacher said, my department head insisted on teaching only the present tense in Level 1, the preterite in Level 2, etc. This Head’s reasoning was, people must “master” one set of “vocabulary” at a time. Bad idea.
Anyway, let us look at which verbforms in Spanish are actually most frequently used. Here, from Wiktionary.com’s Spanish Frequency List, are the most-used verbs in Spanish, then some ideas about what this means for teachers.
The verbform is as given, and the number refers to how close to most-used the verbform is. The lower the number, the more often used the verb is. Reference point: in Spanish, the most-used word is que (“what” or “that”) whose number is therefore 1. The second most-used word is de (“of” or “from”) whose number is 2, and the articles la and el (“the”) are the 6th and 7th most-frequently-used words. OK, verbs:
First, the facts.
A. The top 202 most-used Spanish words include
- verbs in seven verb tenses (present, preterite, imperfect, present perfect, present progressive, formal future, informal future e.g. va a hablar)
- verbs in two subjunctive moods (present and past)
- reflexive verbs
B. Verbs we think are oft-used such as gustar are less-used than for example fue.
C. The traditional textbook order of teaching verb tenses (typically, present ⇒ preterite ⇒ imperfect ⇒ present perfect ⇒ subjunctive) is totally at odds with how frequently verb forms are actually used.
The implications (in no particular order):
- Traditional textbook verb sequencing will not help students in real-world use. Most students will not take five years of Spanish– two is more typical– and so traditional sequencing will overplay less-used “categories” (e.g. stem-changing verbs) and underplay what actually gets used (everything, basically). They will therefore understand less than they should/could.
We know this: according to Davies and others, the 1500 most-used words make up 85% of all spoken language (in any language). A reasonable target for a five-year high-school language program would therefore be, 300 words per year, more or less. What if students only take two? Well then, they will get the most benefit from using the 600 most-used words.
- Textbook sequencing does not properly “model” grammar “rules.” It is pretty obvious that everything normally used is “mixed together.” A four year old will say something like yesterday Daddy took me to a playdate. I hurt myself playing with Jason. But it was fun. I like playing with Jason. He’s nice. Here, there are three verb tenses and a reflexive verb.In Spanish, English speakers have a whack of verb subtleties to soak up. For example, the term “I was” could be estaba, estuve, me sentí or fui. If we teach one tense as a time, as the textbook does, we play up the morphology (form) at the expense of contextual “rule” awareness. E.g. a Colombian will say cuando estaba cansado ayer en la tarde, me tomé un tinto (“when I was tired yesterday afternoon, I grabbed a coffee”). The Colombian has acquired the “rule” that the preterite tense “interrupts” the “background” that the imperfect tense establishes.
In a traditional textbook, however (eg the ¡Juntos! books I used to use), students will spend quite a while on the preterite, and then on the imperfect. Even if they acquire the specific forms (which they generally don’t, because nobody is on anybody else’s schedule in terms of acquisition), when a new form shows up, two things happen:
a. they will start using the new form (verb endings) everywhere and apparently forget the older form’s endings. Kids who knew to say ayer yo fui a la escuela now say ayer yo iba a la escuela intending to mean the same thing.
b. when (if) they pick up the new form, they will have huge problems “knowing” which form to use where. Why? Because there are so many “rules” to remember that the only effective way to pick them up is from contextual input modeling. Basically, we need to hear an ocean of meaningful Spanish sentences which use both these verb tenses together. This is true in any language of any grammatical structure.
An English speaker can do a thought experiment here: what is the “rule” for using the very high-frequency English words some and any? Why can’t I ask do you have some advice? or answer no I don’t have some advice for you? Why can I say do you have some of those washers for my drum? but not do you have some ideas?
Anyway. There you go: some data and ideas about word frequency. Comments as always welcome.