Learners need a LOT of meaningful repetition to acquire something, so years ago Susan Gross developed the “circling” technique to allow teachers to make huuuuuuge numbers of repetitions on vocab. Here’s how you do it, and no, you don’t have to use T.P.R.S. to benefit. You are also going to circle sentences you find in reading, and things you say in Movietalk.
1. Start with a sentence– Rochelle quiere jugar fútbol (R. wants to play soccer) & make sure kids understand it.
2. Ask a yes question– ¿clase, Rochelle quiere jugar fútbol?–and class answers sí. Restate sentence.
3. Ask a no question–clase, ¿Rochelle quiere jugar basquetbol ?– and class answers no. Restate sentence.
4. Ask an either/or question– clase, ¿quiere Rochelle jugar basquetbol o fútbol?– and class answers fútbol. Restate sentence.
5. Ask an “adding detail” question where kids have input– clase, ¿dónde quiere jugar fútbol Rochelle?— and when they suggest something interesting, add that to the sentence, e.g. Sí, clase, ¡Rochelle quiere jugar basquetbol en Barcelona!
6. Now, circle the new detail, always restating the sentence s.l.o.w.l.y. Clase, ¿quiere Rochelle jugar fútbol en Barcelona? ¿Quiere jugar fútbol en Los Angeles? etc
If you want to add details, “with whom?” and “where?” questions are best, as these add details without adding new vocab. In T.P.R.S., we want to recycle a small amount of vocab so people really acquire it, rather than swamping students in an ocean of partly-acquired words.
The most important thing I have learned about circling is, don’t overdo it. If you have a story with, say, 3 parallel characters, you are going to re-use each sentence for each character, so please for the kids’ sake do not beat the sentences to death. If your structure is quería tener (wanted to have) you can ask a yes question about one character, a no question about another, etc. If you are doing Ben Slavic-style “pre-teaching” where you circle and play around with vocab before asking a story, always start with two sentences (more variety).
Goddess Laurie Clarq also weighed in– read her ideas here— and another suggestion (dunno where this came from) is to circle subject, verb then object (or to mix the order up).
E.g. your sentence is Maninder tiene tres novos guapos (M. has three handsome boyfriends).
So, first you circle Maninder. Clase, ¿tiene tres novios guapos Maninder? ¿Tiene tres novios guapos Anna? ¿Tiene tres novios Anna o Maninder? Always repeat the sentence.
You next circle the verb. Clase, ¿,quiere o tiene tres novios guapos Maninder? Clase, ¿quiere tres novios guapos? Etc
Finally, you circle the subject. Clase, ¿Maninder tiene tres novios guapos? ¿Tiene tres perros? ¿Tiene tres gatos o tres novios?
The circling keys to success are
- go s.l.o.w.l.y
- keep it 100% comprehensible
- go slow enough to be understood, and fast enough to not be boring
- use parallel characters (or sentences) so you don’t beat your questions to death
- DO NOT CIRCLE EVERYTHING! You only need to (mainly) circle new-ish stuff.
Thanks for this. Do you incorporate circling into every lesson? I see my students twice a week and have been using circling as a way in which to review the current target structures briefly at the start of each lesson. Not sure if this is overkill or is something I should continue….
I circle what they don’t immediately recognise.
How does this work with fairy tales? Could you make an example?